4.2. Authentication and Authorization

Most Hadoop components, such as HDFS, Yarn, Hive, etc., have security frameworks, which support Simple, Kerberos and LDAP authentication. currently Sqoop 2 provides 2 types of authentication: simple and kerberos. The authentication module is pluggable, so more authentication types can be added. Additionally, a new role based access control is introduced in Sqoop 1.99.6. We recommend to use this capability in multi tenant environments, so that malicious users can’t easily abuse your created link and job objects.

4.2.1. Simple Authentication Configuration

Modify Sqoop configuration file, normally in <Sqoop Folder>/conf/sqoop.properties.

  • Simple authentication is used by default. Commenting out authentication configuration will yield the use of simple authentication. Run command

Start Sqoop server as usual.

<Sqoop Folder>/bin/sqoop.sh server start

Start Sqoop client as usual.

<Sqoop Folder>/bin/sqoop.sh client

4.2.2. Kerberos Authentication

Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol which works on the basis of ‘tickets’ to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. Its designers aimed it primarily at a client–server model and it provides mutual authentication—both the user and the server verify each other’s identity. Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdropping and replay attacks. Dependency

Set up a KDC server. Skip this step if KDC server exists. It’s difficult to cover every way Kerberos can be setup (ie: there are cross realm setups and multi-trust environments). This section will describe how to setup the sqoop principals with a local deployment of MIT kerberos.

Configure Hadoop cluster to use Kerberos authentication.

  • Authentication type should be cluster level. All components must have the same authentication type: use Kerberos or not. In other words, Sqoop with Kerberos authentication could not communicate with other Hadoop components, such as HDFS, Yarn, Hive, etc., without Kerberos authentication, and vice versa.
  • How to set up a Hadoop cluster with Kerberos authentication is out of the scope of this document. Follow the related links like https://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.5.0/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-common/SecureMode.html

Create keytab and principal for Sqoop 2 via kadmin in command line.

addprinc -randkey HTTP/<FQDN>@<REALM>
addprinc -randkey sqoop/<FQDN>@<REALM>
xst -k /home/kerberos/sqoop.keytab HTTP/<FQDN>@<REALM>
xst -k /home/kerberos/sqoop.keytab sqoop/<FQDN>@<REALM>
  • The <FQDN> should be replaced by the FQDN of the server, which could be found via “hostname -f” in command line.
  • The <REALM> should be replaced by the realm name in krb5.conf file generated when installing the KDC server in the former step.
  • The principal HTTP/<FQDN>@<REALM> is used in communication between Sqoop client and Sqoop server. Since Sqoop server is an http server, so the HTTP principal is a must during SPNEGO process, and it is case sensitive.
  • Http request could be sent from other client like browser, wget or curl with SPNEGO support.
  • The principal sqoop/<FQDN>@<REALM> is used in communication between Sqoop server and Hdfs/Yarn as the credential of Sqoop server. Configuration

Modify Sqoop configuration file, normally in <Sqoop Folder>/conf/sqoop.properties.

  • When _HOST is used as FQDN in principal, it will be replaced by the real FQDN. https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-6632
  • If parameter proxyuser is set true, Sqoop server will use proxy user mode (sqoop delegate real client user) to run Yarn job. If false, Sqoop server will use sqoop user to run Yarn job. Run command


export SQOOP2_HOST=$(hostname -f).
  • The <FQDN> should be replaced by the FQDN of the server, which could be found via “hostname -f” in command line.

Start Sqoop server using sqoop user.

sudo –u sqoop <Sqoop Folder>/bin/sqoop.sh server start

Run kinit to generate ticket cache.

kinit HTTP/<FQDN>@<REALM> -kt /home/kerberos/sqoop.keytab

Start Sqoop client.

<Sqoop Folder>/bin/sqoop.sh client Verify

If the Sqoop server has started successfully with Kerberos authentication, the following line will be in <@LOGDIR>/sqoop.log:

2014-12-04 15:02:58,038 INFO  security.KerberosAuthenticationHandler [org.apache.sqoop.security.authentication.KerberosAuthenticationHandler.secureLogin(KerberosAuthenticationHandler.java:84)] Using Kerberos authentication, principal [sqoop/_HOST@HADOOP.COM] keytab [/home/kerberos/sqoop.keytab]

If the Sqoop client was able to communicate with the Sqoop server, the following will be in <@LOGDIR>/sqoop.log :

Refreshing Kerberos configuration
Acquire TGT from Cache
null credentials from Ticket Cache
principal is HTTP/<FQDN>@HADOOP.COM
Will use keytab
Commit Succeeded

4.2.3. Customized Authentication

Users can create their own authentication modules. By performing the following steps:

  • Create customized authentication handler extends abstract class AuthenticationHandler.
  • Implement abstract function doInitialize and secureLogin in AuthenticationHandler.
public class MyAuthenticationHandler extends AuthenticationHandler {

  private static final Logger LOG = Logger.getLogger(MyAuthenticationHandler.class);

  public void doInitialize() {
    securityEnabled = true;

  public void secureLogin() {
    LOG.info("Using customized authentication.");
  • Modify configuration org.apache.sqoop.authentication.handler in <Sqoop Folder>/conf/sqoop.properties and set it to the customized authentication handler class name.
  • Restart the Sqoop server.

4.2.4. Authorization Users, Groups, and Roles

At the core of Sqoop’s authorization system are users, groups, and roles. Roles allow administrators to give a name to a set of grants which can be easily reused. A role may be assigned to users, groups, and other roles. For example, consider a system with the following users and groups.

<User>: <Groups>
user_all: group1, group2
user1: group1
user2: group2

Sqoop roles must be created manually before being used, unlike users and groups. Users and groups are managed by the login system (Linux, LDAP or Kerberos). When a user wants to access one resource (connector, link, connector), the Sqoop2 server will determine the username of this user and the groups associated. That information is then used to determine if the user should have access to this resource being requested, by comparing the required privileges of the Sqoop operation to the user privileges using the following rules.

  • User privileges (Has the privilege been granted to the user?)
  • Group privileges (Does the user belong to any groups that the privilege has been granted to?)
  • Role privileges (Does the user or any of the groups that the user belongs to have a role that grants the privilege?) Administrator

There is a special user: administrator, which can’t be created, deleted by command. The only way to set administrator is to modify the configuration file. Administrator could run management commands to create/delete roles. However, administrator does not implicitly have all privileges. Administrator has to grant privilege to him/her if he/she needs to request the resource. Role management commands

CREATE ROLE –role role_name
DROP ROLE –role role_name
  • Only the administrator has privilege for this. Principal management commands

GRANT ROLE --principal-type principal_type --principal principal_name --role role_name
REVOKE ROLE --principal-type principal_type --principal principal_name --role role_name
SHOW ROLE --principal-type principal_type --principal principal_name
SHOW PRINCIPAL --role role_name
  • principal_type: USER | GROUP | ROLE Privilege management commands

GRANT PRIVILEGE --principal-type principal_type --principal principal_name --resource-type resource_type --resource resource_name --action action_name [--with-grant]
REVOKE PRIVILEGE --principal-type principal_type --principal principal_name [--resource-type resource_type --resource resource_name --action action_name] [--with-grant]
SHOW PRIVILEGE –principal-type principal_type –principal principal_name [--resource-type resource_type --resource resource_name --action action_name]
  • principal_type: USER | GROUP | ROLE
  • resource_type: CONNECTOR | LINK | JOB
  • action_type: ALL | READ | WRITE
  • With with-grant in GRANT PRIVILEGE command, this principal could grant his/her privilege to other users.
  • Without resource in REVOKE PRIVILEGE command, all privileges on this principal will be revoked.
  • With with-grant in REVOKE PRIVILEGE command, only grant privilege on this principal will be removed. This principal has the privilege to access this resource, but he/she could not grant his/her privilege to others.
  • Without resource in SHOW PRIVILEGE command, all privileges on this principal will be listed.